Local distribution networks for print in Munster and South Leinster during the eighteenth-century.

Introduction:

In this paper a map of print culture in the Munster and South Leinster region will be outlined and discussed. The empirical foundation for the study is a database of over 700 individuals involved in the print trade, concentrating on production and distribution, more than on the creative input of authors, although sometimes the lines are blurred. During the seventeenth century there was little printing activity, but there were several ports on the south and south-west coast where printed items were imported. Merchants were not solely reliant on Dublin for the provision of printed matter, trade could be carried on independently with England and the continent. Raymond Gillespie has noted 120 merchants importing books from Bristol to the south of Ireland between 1590 and 1612.[1] Books were imported at Youghal and Dingle from England, Holland and France in 1699 and 1700.[2] In 1723 the chief coastal trading towns were Cork, with 690 ships, Waterford with 176, Limerick with 71, Youghal with 51, Kinsale with 44, Baltimore with 38, Rosse with 27, Wexford with 21 and Dingle with 6.[3] Waterford was described as ‘wealthy, populous and well situated for Trade’ where ‘Ships of a large Burthen may come up to, and safely lie at the Kay.’ Limerick too was considered ‘an elegant, rich and populous city, whose trade is very considerable; for though its Distance from the Sea is about fifty miles, yet Ships of Burthen may come up to the very Walls.’ The extensive international trading networks built up by merchants in the ports meant a steady flow of information and foreign news coming in which could be harnessed to provide newspaper content. By the early decades of the eighteenth century newspaper enterprises were initiated in many port towns. Port towns received news independently and often in advance of the capital, for example the American newspapers regularly arrived at the port of Cork from transatlantic shipping, thus providing a scoop whenever important events were taking place in America.

Hibernian-Atlas-Munster

Members of the book trade:

To identify those involved with the production or distribution of print media in Munster and South Leinster information has been gathered from a wide variety of sources including printed books, newspapers and other printed items, advertising, subscription lists, local histories and memoirs, etc. Nine counties have been included, all of Munster plus Carlow, Kilkenny and Wexford, roughly one-third of the country. The time frame covers from the earliest reference to bookselling or printing by named individuals to 1824, the year of publication of Pigot’s Directory.[4] Included are all names that have a connection with the trade. In the case of certain booksellers, printers, papermakers and newspaper proprietors quite a lot of information is known and research has been published on them, in other cases a single reference only indicates their involvement. Ancillary trades such as engraving, mapmaking, etc. have been included. Not all are exclusively involved with the book trade, included are innkeepers, post masters, merchants, apothecaries and shopkeepers who were agents for newspapers, or who acted as subscription agents for books or periodicals.

Book-trade-activity

Variations in trading patterns can be discerned from one county to another. In some counties, such as Carlow, Clare, Kilkenny, Limerick, Waterford and Wexford, evidence shows the main activity is in the county town, with general traders in other towns acting as agents for newspapers and books. In Cork, while the city shows the greatest concentration of booksellers and printers, other towns showed steady activity for the distribution of print media. Youghal featured in the early seventeenth century when a bookbinder was working there[5], and from the 1770s two printers and several booksellers were in evidence. In Kerry Tralee shows the main concentration of printers and booksellers, with agents in Killarney, Ballylongford, Castlemain, Castleisland, Listowel and Dingle from the 1760s. Tipperary is the most unusual county with a greater spread of specialist activity across towns in the county: Clonmel was the most important and book trade personnel can be identified from the 1720s and 1730s, with significant activity also in Cashel, Carrick-on-Suir, Thurles, Tipperary town, Roscrea and Nenagh at different times during the eighteenth century.

Members-book-trade

Those selling books in Clonmel sourced their stock from Dublin and from booksellers in the nearby counties. Evidence shows Clonmel as the earliest town in the county to have agents taking imported books. For example, in 1710 William Connor was subscription agent for the London publication The tryal of Doctor Henry Sacheverell,[6] and in 1720 George Bagwell was susbcription agent for Increase Mather’s Sixteen sermons, published in Dublin.[7] From about 1763 to 1773 Robert Dudley, described as a merchant, was active in Clonmel, acting as agent for Finn’s Leinster Journal, published in Kilkenny, in 1767 and 1768. In 1763 he subscribed to George Roberts’ Juvenile poems, published in Limerick, and ten years later he subscribed to 25 copies of James Jenkins’ Juvenile poems, published in Waterford.[8] At the end of the century various members of the Gorman family were booksellers in Clonmel. William Gorman was subscription agent for the Vulgate Bible printed in Dublin by Richard Cross in Dublin in 1790.[9] Thomas Gorman was printer and bookseller at Shakespeare’s Head, Main Street, Clonmel, from the 1790s to about 1811. In 1796 he subscribed to 25 copies of Rev. Joseph Moroney’s Sermons, published in Dublin, and his bookseller’s label appears in another work published in Dublin in the same year: Joseph Reeve’s Practical discourses.[10] He was agent for the New Magazine, published in Dublin in 1799, and the Cork Mercantile Chronicle in 1802.[11] He first published the best selling title The pious miscellany, a selection of 25 Irish poems, by Tadhg Gaelach Ó Suilleabháin in 1802.[12] In 1810 he was agent for The Hibernian preceptor by George Wall, published in Parsonstown (Birr, County Offaly).[13] The following year he issued his own publication of Samuel Fennell’s Original poems.[14] Ellen Gorman is listed in Pigot’s Directories as bookseller and stationer in 1820 and 1824.[15]

At the lowest end of the scale of print distribution were news hawkers and pamphlet sellers, chapmen and ballad sellers who plied their trade throughout the countryside, and postmen and couriers who delivered the newspapers and periodicals. Very little is known of these men and women. Mary Pollard, in her Dictionary of members of the Dublin book trade, notes only 75 hawkers out of the total of 2,190 names, and they are known for other reasons.[16] The same is true in Munster, individuals such as John McCormick, a blind news hawker in Cork, are known only because of falling foul of the law, or those unfortunates, such as one Carty of New Street, Cork, who met an untimely end.[17] John Wesley, in his journal, mentioned Nicholas Butler, a ballad sheet vendor in Cork, who incited the people against Methodist preachers in 1749 and 1750.[18] Advertising shows that printers aimed specific titles at chapmen, offering discounts for bulk sales. In some cases pedlars may have worked on their own account as small-time traders, in others they were employed by the printer or his/her agents. Postboys and couriers were employed directly by newspaper proprietors. In 1770 William Flyn’s unnamed courier was accused of theft in Youghal, but his innocence was proved and Flyn printed a notice in The Hibernian Chronicle thanking the ‘Ladies, Chief Magistrate and Gentlemen of Youghal, who so kindly interested themselves in behalf of his courier’.[19]

Newspapers:

Provincial newspapers provide one of the most valuable sources for the identification of individuals involved with the print trade. They tend to be long-lasting, covering years or decades. Enterprises established by printers, they favour news and advertising connected with the industry. In an attempt to increase and facilitate circulation they established drop-off points in different places for the delivery of papers and they highlighted these networks in their advertising. In themselves they also constitute a unique artefact, containing as they a do a variety of content in different forms: news items, advertising, public notices such as proclamations, the assize of bread, ports news, social notices such as births, marriages, promotions and deaths, literary content such as essays, prose and poetry. From their first appearance in manuscript form news sheets became an important means of disseminating information. County and city officials and those involved in trade came to depend on the regular supply of news from home and abroad. Because of their serial nature and the immediacy of their content newspapers helped to keep country areas in regular contact with nearby towns and the wider world.

Advertising came into its own with the newspaper press, linking small villages to the regional capitals and the metropolis. Suddenly advertisements reached a large audience, widely dispersed around the country, creating a demand for luxury goods such as books, patent medicines, fine clothing and millinery, wine, tea and fruit, services offered by craftsmen or those in the professions, and events such as theatrical performances, horse races, balls and masquerades. On a grander scale advertising for the sale or letting of property and the services of pedigree horses constituted a major percentage of notices. Political news from London and Dublin was relayed via the press. From early on many newspapers displayed a political orientation; the supply and control of information could be manipulated for political purposes. By the end of the eighteenth century radical political views were aired through the press, provoking fear in government officials and leading to the supression of the opposition press.

From the second decade of the eighteenth century regional newspapers began to be established, the earliest is the Limerick News Letter, founded in 1716. However, neither the infrastructure nor the financial supports were sufficient to keep the early ventures in business. It was not until the late 1730s that the conditions were right for some towns to have a viable newspaper, the most long-lasting being the Belfast News Letter, begun in 1737 and still in existence. A general rise in literacy, accompanied by an increase in inter-regional trade, and an extension of the market for luxury goods, facilitated the spread of provincial newspapers from mid-century. Local newspapers, in their turn, supported trade and commerce with larger towns and with Dublin. At one penny per issue, or 5s. to 6s. per annum, subscriptions to newspapers were within the range of many in the smaller towns by the second half of the eighteenth century. Papers could be shared among neighbours and friends, and their contents made known to all, irrespective of literacy skills. Several major towns had stable newspaper publishing businesses from this period: Limerick from 1739, followed by Cork in 1753, Waterford in 1765 and Kilkenny in 1766. By the last quarter of the eighteenth century many smaller towns supported a newspaper, sustained by advertising and subscriptions gathered in their hinterlands: Clonmel from 1772, Tralee from 1774, and Ennis from 1778. Wexford had a newspaper in 1776 and another in 1777, but there was no lasting enterprise in the town until 1787.[20] The newspaper proprietor’s network of subscription and advertising agents in the surrounding towns played a major part in the success of the venture and an identification of their contacts and business partnerships greatly adds to our knowledge of trade in a region. From the beginning newspapers were aimed exclusively at an English language readership. For Irish speakers in town and country all reports and advertising had to be translated or otherwise mediated. The newspaper, therefore, may have also helped to further erode the Irish language in the towns.

Distribution networks:

From at least mid century newspaper proprietors in Munster sought to extend the circulation of their newspapers to neighbouring counties. Greater circulation meant increased costs, but also ensured greater scope for advertising, the life-blood of a newspaper. Agencies were set up in the main towns in the region to gather subscriptions, take in advertising and organise delivery of the newspapers. These agents were booksellers, sometimes even other newspaper proprietors, but in many cases the agent was the post master or a local business person. The agent would have received commission on advertising taken in, and a discount on newspapers and other goods such as periodicals, books and patent medicines, and may even have received a salary from the newspaper proprietor, as evidenced by the business records of the English Hampshire Chronicle in November 1778.[21] The distribution circuits of newspapers had areas of overlap, for example in the 1760s and early 1770s the distribution networks for The Hibernian Chronicle from Cork, Finn’s Leinster Journal from Kilkenny, The Limerick Chronicle, The Waterford Chronicle and The Hibernian Gazette from Clonmel had a broad area of intersection.

To exemplify the deep market penetration which a successful newspaper allowed, it is proposed to examine the distribution of The Corke Journal, published in Cork by Eugene Swiney from 1753 and The Hibernian Chronicle published in Cork by William Flyn from 1769. The Corke Journal was the first successful long-lasting newspaper issued in Cork, which continued for about 20 years. Published by Eugene Swiney in Paul Street, Cork, from December 1753, it targeted ‘the Corke and Munster Gentlemen and Ladies’. In his advertisement for the new venture Swiney hoped to make the paper ‘instructive, useful and amusing’.[22] He considered it ‘the first attempt to establish a good newspaper’ in Cork.[23] The importance of foreign news was stressed from the beginning: ‘it shall contain the freshest advices, foreign and domestick; and when pacquets do not arrive, it shall be composed of history, essays, letters, &c. the newest and most agreeable that can be had in London &c.’[24]

Corke-Journal-1754

Distribution of the Corke Journal 1754

Swiney was willing to commence production as soon as 300 subscribers were enlisted. It was published twice a week and country subscribers could have their copies collected in town or delivered by courier at an extra charge. Readers in Youghal, Bandon and Kinsale would have their papers delivered on the day of publication as soon as the printer had 100 subscribers in each town.[25] The cost was 10s. English per annum compared to 6s. English to city subscribers. A difference of 4s. in the cost per subscriber amounted to £20 per hundred subscribers per year. This sum paid the salaries of one or more couriers, possibly maintained a team of horses, and allowed a percentage of the profits to the local agent. Four months after its launch Swiney employed a courier to take copies of The Corke Journal to Clonmel and ‘to drop them at any house on the road, seal’d up and directed for all such gentlemen as are pleased to subscribe for the same, at the price of half a guinea (10s.6d.) per annum’.[26] Subscriptions were taken in Clonmel, Clogheen, Castlelyons, Rathcormack and Kilworth. Two agents were described as merchants,[27] and one, Patrick Brennock in Clonmel, was also subscription agent for Jer Calwell’s Seven Sacraments published in Waterford about 1750-51.[28] By June 1754 Swiney offered to deliver the Dublin newspapers with The Corke Journal for 24s. per annum. Delivery was made to Kinsale, Bandon, Mallow, Midleton, Carrigtwohill, Castlemartyr, Youghal, Rathcormack, Fermoy, Kilworth and Clogheen. Couriers may not have worked exclusively with the newspaper, in 1754 Swiney’s courier to Kinsale was robbed of a quantity of sugar outside Philip Stacpole’s grocery shop, in Barrack Street, Cork, which ‘he had bought for persons in Kinsale’.[29]

William Flyn established his newspaper, The Hibernian Chronicle, in Cork in October 1769. He printed 2,000 proposals in September, and when he had attracted ‘a respectable number of ladies and gentlemen’ as subscribers he launched the venture.[30] The paper was published twice a week, on Mondays and Thursdays, at the price of one penny per issue, or five British shillings per annum to town subscribers, and a half guinea (10s.6d.) per annum to country subscribers, for this sum Flyn included a title page and index at the end of the year.[31] His customers were encouraged to settle their accounts at the assizes in Cork.[32] The newspaper was distributed widely using the Post Office network. For circuits not covered by the Post Office Flyn found it necessary to employ couriers whom he paid quarterly.[33] By early 1770 agents were in place in the major Cork towns: Youghal, Cloyne, Midleton, Castlemartyr, Mallow and Kinsale, and by the middle of the year he had an agent in Killarney, Co. Kerry. These agents were not booksellers but an innholder, a merchant, an apothecary, a cooper, two post masters, and a teacher.[34] By 1772 The Hibernian Chronicle was circulated by couriers to 26 towns in Cork, Limerick, Waterford and Kerry, “besides a great number to the different post-offices in the kingdom”.[35] At Flyn’s retirement from publication of the paper in April 1802 his successors renamed the newspaper The Cork Mercantile Chronicle and increased its publication to three times a week.[36]

Hibernian-Chronicle-1772

Distribution of the Hibernian Chronicle 1772

The distribution networks formed to convey newspapers to subscribers outside the main towns could be used for other commodities and for new newspaper projects. In 1773 William Bingley, printer from London, made a circuit of Ireland establishing agents for the Independent Chronicle and Bingley’s London Journal.[37] Munster agents were found in Cork, Kerry (Killarney and Tralee), Limerick (Limerick and Rathkeale), Tipperary (Tipperary, Cashel and Clonmel), Kilkenny and Wexford (Ross, Wexford, Enniscorthy and Gorey) to take subscriptions and organise delivery of the papers. The agents were the local newspaper proprietors: John Ferrar in Limerick, Edward Collins in Clonmel, and Edmund Finn in Kilkenny, the bookseller Ellis Chandlee in Cork, and merchants or other business people in towns that had no specialist bookseller. It is notable that agents were established particularly in towns that did not have a local newspaper at this period. Two years later, in 1775, William Flyn formed a business link with Bingley for the sale of The Hibernian Chronicle in London, Bingley was appointed to sell the paper and take in advertising.[38]

A provincial newspaper created a network by which books and periodicals could be distributed to the smaller towns and country places. The regular delivery of a paper ensured a constant audience for the advertisements carried in its pages. The agents for the newspaper took in subscriptions and orders for books and other commodities advertised. For example James Craswell, a merchant in Killarney, was agent for The Corke Journal, The Hibernian Chronicle, and in 1773 Craswell was appointed one of Bingley’s Irish agents for the Independent Chronicle and Bingley’s London Journal.[39] He acted as subscription agent for John Brenn’s book-keeping in 1767, and when William Flyn published Poulsons’ Moral and divine observations by subscription in 1775 James Craswell was on the subscription list.[40] John Furzer, post master in Kinsale, and with his sisters, linen draper, hosier, haberdasher, and distributor of stamps, was agent for The Hibernian Chronicle, he subscribed to Temple’s History of the general rebellion, published in Cork in 1766, and to Fitzgerald’s Cork remembrancer in 1783.[41] Mrs Furzer became agent for The Waterford Herald in 1792, Miss Furzer subscribed to Dodd’s Essays and poems in 1770, and was agent for The Cork Mercantile Chronicle in 1802.[42]

Conclusion:

The role of the Post Office in the distribution of newspapers was crucial from the earliest days, but in the second half of the eighteenth century private couriers were also used to distribute newspapers on the day of publication to towns not well served by the post.[43] Gathering news from home and abroad the newspaper printer used his/her contacts in the smaller towns to distribute the papers deep into the countryside. The newspaper opened up channels or used existing ones to convey other print media, such as monthly magazines and book catalogues offering books, pamphlets, schoolbooks, subscription editions, expensive books sold in parts, as well as stationery, patent medicines and fancy goods. Customers could order from catalogues and books would be delivered to the agent’s shop with the newspapers.

Newspaper readership is difficult to quantify, and individual readers hard to identify, except in rare circumstances. In the countryside gentry, clergy, landowners and their agents took out subscriptions to Dublin and local newspapers, and often also to monthly periodicals, all of which were made available to guests and visitors. We know that Jonathan Swift visited one Mr Matthews in Thomastown, Co. Tipperary. He had a room ‘fitted up exactly like a coffee-house, where a bar-maid and waiters attended to furnish refreshments at all times of the day. It was furnished with chess-boards, Backgammon Tables, Newspapers, Pamphlets &c. in all the forms of a City Coffee-house’. Touring Ireland in 1776 Rev. Dr Thomas Campbell mentioned a ‘public news or coffee-room’ at Castletown House, Co. Kildare, provided by Thomas Conolly for the ‘common resort of his guests in boots’. The accounts from Castletown show numerous bills for newspapers. [44] A ledger of accounts covering the years 1781 to 1813 is held in the National Library of Ireland and it itemises the newspapers and periodicals supplied to individuals, coffee houses, the administration and businesses and shows the range of titles imported from London for the market.[45]

In the towns gentlemen, clergy, merchants and traders were the likely subscribers to local newspapers. Advertising the copyright of the Belfast Newsletter in 1794, the print run was estimated at over 3,000 copies, it was calculated that each copy would be read by six persons, making a readership of over 19,000 per issue.[46] Print runs are generally not known and 3,000 may have been an optimum, but even calculating with smaller print runs the potential readership was extensive. Each single issue of a provincial newspaper could reach some thousands of readers or listeners, bringing international and domestic news, metropolitan and local advertising. Newspapers were not as ephemeral as they are today, they tended to be passed on to other readers. Their life was longer than just one day and they were sometimes kept for long periods and even bound into volumes, a fact which has contributed to the survival of many titles. A letter from a reader to the Freeman’s Journal in 1771 states: ‘The Freeman’s Journal being a paper more like than any other to be laid by and kept for future reading and service, makes it the best paper for any useful essay or discovery to be inserted’.[47] From 1769 The Hibernian Chronicle, issued in Cork, published a title page and index at the end of the year, making it suitable for binding and retention.

Images courtesy of Dublin City Library & Archive (www.dublincitypubliclibraries.ie )

[1] Raymond Gillespie, ‘The book trade in southern Ireland, 1590-1640’, Books beyond the pale: aspects of the provincial book trade in Ireland before 1850’, Gerard Long, ed. (Dublin, Rare Books Group of the Library Association of Ireland, 1996), p. 4.

[2] M. Pollard, Dublin’s trade in books 1550-1800 (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1989), p.160.

[3] Wyndham Beaves, Lex Mercatoria Rediviva: or, merchant’s directory (Dublin, printed for Peter Wilson, 1754), pp 494-6. Dublin was the largest port with 1,834 ships.

[4] The commercial directory of Ireland … for 1820-21 &22, Manchester, published by J. Pigot, 1820; Pigot and Co.’s city of Dublin and Hibernia provincial directory, Manchester, J. Pigot and Co., 1824.

[5] Bartholomew Larking, listed as free of the city of Youghal in 1639. Richard Caulfield, The council book of the corporation of Youghal (Guildford, J. Billing and Sons, 1878), p. 211.

[6] Dublin Intelligence, 24 June 1710; 1 July 1710.

[7] Dublin Courant, 4 July 1720.

[8] George Roberts, Juvenile poems on various subjects (Limerick, printed for the author by John Cherry, 1763). James Jenkins, Juvenile poems on several occasions (Waterford, printed for the author by Esther Crawley and Son, 1773).

[9] Finn’s Leinster Journal, 27-31 March 1790.

[10] Joseph Morony, Sermons, and exhortations for the whole year (Dublin, printed by T. M’Donnel, 1796).

[11] Cork Advertiser, 3 August 1799. The New Magazine (Dublin, John Gough, 1799). A catalogue of the Bradshaw collection of Irish books in the University Library Cambridge, 3 vols (Cambridge, 1916).

[12] Richard Sharpe, ‘Tadhg Gaelach Ó Suilleabháin’s Pious miscellany: editions of the Munster bestseller of the early nineteenth century’, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 114C (2014), pp 235-93.

[13] George Wall, The Hibernian preceptor (Parsonstown, John Bull, 1810).

[14] Samuel Fennell, Original poems (Clonmel, printed by T. Gorman, 1811).

[15] Pigot’s Directory, 1820; 1824.

[16] M. Pollard, A dictionary of members of the Dublin book trade 1550-1800 (London, Bibliographical Society, 2000).

[17] John M’Cormick, blind news hawker, murdered his wife, Corke Journal, 18 November 1754, while Carty, news hawker, fell down stairs drunk and died, Corke Journal, 15 March 1754.

[18] D. A. Levistone Cooney, The Methodists in Ireland: a short history (Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Columba Press, 2001), pp 36-7. Wesley’s Journal 20 July 1749 and 14 April 1750.

[19] Hibernian Chronicle, 23 July 1770.

[20] Surviving issues of Irish newspapers have been located and listed in James O’Toole, Newsplan: report of the Newsplan project in Ireland (Dublin, The British Library/National Library of Ireland), 1992. Newspapers also form part of the English Short Title Catalogue (ESTC).

[21] C. Y. Ferdinand, ‘Local distribution networks in 18th-century England’, in Spreading the word: the distribution networks of print 1550-1850, Robin Myers and Michael Harris, eds (Winchester, St Paul’s Bibliographies, 1990), pp 131-49.

[22] Corke Journal, 7 December 1753.

[23] Corke Journal, 24 June 1754.

[24] Corke Journal, 14 December 1753.

[25] Corke Journal, 11 December 1753.

[26] Corke Journal, 8 April 1754.

[27] Patrick Brenock, merchant, Clonmel; Denis M’Grath, Clogheen; Atfield Bell, Castlelyons; Andrew Morrogh, merchant, Rathcormack; Edward Griffith, Kilworth. Subscriptions were taken at the Bowling Green Kinsale.

[28] Jer Calwell, Seven sacraments, advertised in The Oeconomy of human life (Waterford, printed by Jer. Calwell, n.d. [1750-51]).

[29] Cork Journal, 15 August 1754.

[30] Hibernian Chronicle, 23 October 1769.

[31] Hibernian Chronicle, 31 December 1770; 2 January 1772.

[32] Hibernian Chronicle, 30 March 1772.

[33] Hibernian Chronicle, 16 July 1772.

[34] Thomas Shea, cooper, Youghal; John Scanlan, teacher and land surveyor, Cloyne; Mr Barry, innkeeper, Midleton; William Hamilton, Midleton; Robert O’Brien, apothecary, Castlemartyr; John Furzer, post master, Kinsale; Kennedy Hayes, post master, Mallow; James Craswell, merchant, Killarney.

[35] Kinsale, Bandon, Bantry, Skibereen, Clonakilty, Rosscarbery, Berehaven, Skull, Mallow, Buttevant, Charleville, Limerick, Youghal, Midleton, Cloyne, Castlemartyr, Lismore, Tallow, Cobh, Passage, Macroom, Killarney, Shanagh, Castleisland, Tralee and Dingle. Hibernian Chronicle, 2 January 1772.

[36] Hibernian Chronicle, 25 March 1802. Cork Mercantile Chronicle, 26 April 1802. Newsplan.

[37] Hibernian Chronicle, 30 August 1773; 6 September 1773.

[38] Hibernian Chronicle, 31 August-4 September 1775. ‘Cork, printed by William Flyn at the Shakespeare, near the Exchange and sold by W. Bingley, opposite St. Dunstan’s, Fleet Street, London, by whom advertisements for this paper are received…’

[39] Hibernian Chronicle, 18 June 1770. Corke Journal, 2 April 1770. Hibernian Chronicle, 6 September 1773. Freeman’s Journal, 19-21 October 1773.

[40] Finn’s Leinster Journal, 7-11 March 1767. James Poulson, Moral and divine observations (Cork, printed for the author, and sold by William Flyn and Thomas White, 1775).

[41] Richard Lucas, The Cork directory (Cork, printed for the author by J. Cronin, 1787). Hibernian Chronicle, 14 May 1770. John Temple, History of the general rebellion in Ireland (Cork, printed by Phineas and George Bagnell), 1766. John Fitzgerald, Cork remembrancer (Cork, printed by J. Sullivan, 1783).

[42] Waterford Herald, 4 February 1792. J.S. Dodd, Essays and poems (Cork, printed by Eugene Swiney, for the author, 1770). A catalogue of the Bradshaw collection, ii, p. 873.

[43] Máire Kennedy, ‘Eighteenth-century newspaper publishing in Munster and South Leinster’, Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, 103 (1998), pp 67-88.

[44] Thomas Sheridan, The life of the Rev. Dr. Jonathan Swift, Dean of St. Patrick’s, Dublin, 2nd edition (London, 1787), p. 355. Thomas Campbell, A philosophical survey of the South of Ireland: a series of letters to John Watkinson by Rev. T. Campbell (Dublin, 1778), p. 55. National Library of Ireland: Ms. 3939-3940, tradesmen’s receipts, Thomas Conolly, 1778-1795.

[45] National Library of Ireland: Ms 42,103, ‘Ledger of accounts furnished by an agent supplying members of the British army, civilian and ecclesiastical establishment in Ireland … 1781-1813’.

[46] Freeman’s Journal, 20 December 1794.

[47] Freeman’s Journal, 2-5 February 1771.

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